The Vitis IDE has a feature for programming the board/part using JTAG, allowing you to bypass the need to copy the contents of sd_card to an actual SD card to boot on the board.
After successfully building a design for hardware, right-click System Project and select Program Flash. You should see a screen similar to the following:
In this screen specify the Image File, which
is generally the
BOOT.BIN, any offset (if necessary for the flash
memory), as well as the Init File. The Init File is the
partial PDI from the platform you are targeting. To make sure the flash is
programmed properly, check the Verify after
flash check box to confirm it was programmed properly. If the flash
memory already has existing data, you can do a more secure erase by checking the
Blank check after erase check box to make
sure it is fully erased before programming.
Make sure that the Packaging
options in the System Project
Settings window has
Programming the Device
If you do not want to program the flash memory and just want to program the device through JTAG, there is an option under the Xilinx menu to select Program Device.