The SPI flash device has requirements on the switching characteristics of its input clock. This analysis is for the clock signal generated for the SPI flash device by the system-level design example. Completion of this analysis requires board-level signal integrity simulation capability.
The following parameters, shown in This Figure , are defined as requirements on the clock input to the SPI flash device:
• T clch = SPI bus clock maximum rise time requirement
• T chcl = SPI bus clock maximum fall time requirement
• T cl = SPI bus clock minimum low time requirement
• T ch = SPI bus clock minimum high time requirement
Based on the physical construction of the SPI bus, the I/O characteristics of the FPGA, and the I/O characteristics of any level translator used, the SPI bus clock signal originating at the FPGA exhibits maximum rise and fall times (T rise and T fall ) at the SPI flash device. Satisfaction of T clch and T chcl requirements by T rise and T fall must be verified. Should T clch and T chcl requirements not be satisfied, avenues of correction include:
• Change I/O slew rate for the system-level design example SPI bus clock output.
• Change I/O drive strength for the system-level design example SPI bus clock output.
• Select an alternate level translator with more suitable I/O characteristics.
Generally, the T clch and T chcl requirements are easy to satisfy. They exist to prohibit exceptionally long rise and fall times that might occur on a true bus with many loads, rather than the point-to-point scheme used with the system-level design example.
The SPI bus clock generated by the system-level design example is the input clock divided by two. Therefore, the SPI bus clock high and low times are nominally equal to T clk . However, considering actual T rise and T fall , also ensure satisfaction of the following:
• T clk ≥ T rise + T ch
• T clk ≥ T fall + T cl
• T clch = 33 ns (from SPI flash data sheet)
• T chcl = 33 ns (from SPI flash data sheet)
• T cl = 9 ns (from SPI flash data sheet)
• T ch = 9 ns (from SPI flash data sheet)
• T rise = 2 ns (from PCB simulation)
• T fall = 2 ns (from PCB simulation)
Given this data, perform the following:
1. Check: Is T clch ≥ T rise ? Is 33 ns ≥ 2 ns? Yes
2. Check: Is T chcl ≥ T fall ? Is 33 ns ≥ 2 ns? Yes
3. Calculate: T clk ≥ T rise + T ch requires T clk ≥ 2 ns + 9 ns, or T clk ≥ 11 ns
4. Calculate: T clk ≥ T fall + Tcl requires T clk ≥ 2 ns + 9 ns, or T clk ≥ 11 ns
The rise time requirements are satisfied. These requirements on T clk indicate that the SPI Bus Clock Waveform and Timing Budget restrict the system-level design example input clock cycle time to be 11 ns or larger.