Determining the input frequency can result in several possible M and D values. The next step is to determine the optimum M and D values. The starting M value is first determined. This is based off the VCO target frequency, the ideal operating frequency of the VCO.
The goal is to find the M value closest to the ideal operating point of the VCO. The minimum D value is used to start the process. The goal is to make D and M values as small as possible while keeping ¦ VCO as high as possible.