Vivado synthesis can be run incrementally with little setup required. This requires a checkpoint to be read before synthesis. It is setup automatically when running in project mode but for not project mode it must be added to scripts.
For more information, see Incremental synthesis in Vivado Design Suite User Guide: Synthesis (UG901).
IP and Block Designs are automatically synthesized in out of context mode and will reuse cached results when available. For more information see Out-of-Context Design Flow in Vivado Design Suite User Guide: Design Flows Overview (UG892).